A third-party vendor of 3CX, a popular Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) comms provider, left an open server and exposed sensitive 3CX data.
The issue went under the company’s radar, even though it was recently targeted by North Korean hackers.
While victims of cyberattacks should not be ridiculed, there’s a reason that sayings like “fool me once, shame on you; fool me twice, shame on me” resonate so well.
Earlier this year, suspected North Korean hackers exploited 3CX for supply-chain attacks, spreading malware to devices using the company’s software.
Despite this prior experience with data breaches, the Cybernews research team recently discovered open Elasticsearch (distributed search and analytics engine) and Kibana (data visualization and exploration tool) instances belonging to a third-party vendor of 3CX. The instances, containing sensitive 3CX data, were discovered on May 15th, nearly two months after the initial attacks became public knowledge.
“The finding suggests that the way 3CX deals with cyberattacks is insufficient since exposed instances were not detected. Meanwhile, skilled attackers could use the data to get back into 3CX networks,” Cybernews researchers said.
We reached out to 3CX for comment but did not receive a reply before publishing this article.
“The finding suggests that the way 3CX deals with cyberattacks is insufficient since exposed instances were not detected. Meanwhile, skilled attackers could use the data to get back into 3CX networks.”Cybernews researchers said.
What 3CX data was exposed?
The exposed instances, which the company closed after we contacted them, contained information attackers could have used to spy on 3CX clients or make preparations for larger, more sophisticated attacks. The open instances exposed:
- Call metadata, including time, state, duration, phone number, and email
- License keys
- Encoded database strings
Attackers can leverage call metadata to develop an intimate picture of the callers’ behavior, deducing who called who and for how long. Additional information could allow them to conclude what was discussed during the calls.
“Moreover, the call metadata can reveal internal company information or even the health of an organization. For example, if there are many sporadic calls, that could signify panic,” Cybernews researchers said.
Meanwhile, exposing software license keys presents a different set of problems. Since they ensure that software is obtained legitimately, attackers can use exposed keys to use 3CX software without paying for it.
In some cases, activating software allows the user to sync data between devices. That way, attackers could access user data simply by installing the software and using a legitimate license key.
However, according to the team, exposing database connection strings poses the biggest danger. Connection strings serve as a set of directions for a program to find the database. Typically, they tell the program where the database is, its type, and how to access it.
“Exposed database connection strings can be exploited in several ways. For example, attackers could use the leaked data to connect to the resource without permission and proceed to read, copy, modify, or delete data stored within that resource,” the team said.
3CX’s safety measures
3CX was recently the victim of a cascading supply chain attack. Researchers at cybersecurity company Mandiant concluded that attackers first distributed malware via software from Trading Technologies, which then affected 3CX software.
Even though the company had to evaluate its security posture, the exposed Kibana and Elasticsearch instances went under the radar. According to the team, the exposed data was accessible since March 30th, 2022, months before the supply chain attack occurred.
Interestingly, after 3CX dealt with the cascading supply chain attack, it released a seven-step security action plan that discussed crucial steps to avoid similar leaks, such as a need to harden its network security, perform pen testing, and set up a new department for network operations and security.
“While taking these steps would contribute to enhanced security, they are either not yet effective or were not followed thoroughly, leaving the company vulnerable,” the team said.
If you want to know more about the disclosure process give a look at the original post:
About the author: Vilius Petkauskas, Senior Journalist @ CyberNews
(SecurityAffairs – hacking, data leak)